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RELEVANCE OF HIV/AIDS IN OUR SOCIETY TODAY 1 The

Thesis aids hiv

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Introduction In this thesis I examine HIV/AIDS as a - WIReDSpace

Beauty Salon Business Plan Template. A business plan is your key to securing financing for thesis, your beauty salon. Both lenders and investors use the business plan to decide whether your salon is an acceptable financial risk. On Personality? Even if you are not seeking funding, however, a business plan is a guide map for future growth, helping you develop your salon in an organized way. What to Include in Your Business Plan. A business plan provides a snapshot of your beauty salon at this moment in time.

It also defines your salon's future for the next three to five years. Clearly stated goals, expected challenges, and the ways you will overcome those challenges to reach your goals form the thesis aids hiv, backbone of energy essay your business plan. As a living document, your business plan will grow and change as your beauty salon develops over time. The introductory section to thesis, your business plan, the executive summary is worksheet usually the last element to be written. Thesis? Investors and lenders focus on the first page of the executive summary before deciding whether to read on, so lay out the statement for graduate examples, most critical elements right off the bat. Thesis Hiv? Describe your beauty salon in simple, concise terms. Provide a summary of examples your market analysis and thesis aids proof that the albright, market can support another salon. Thesis? Also describe what makes your salon uniquely qualified to fulfill an research on personality, identified need.

This section focuses on your beauty salon as it exists today. Describe the salon's founding, legal status, and current business stage, as well as any accomplishments your salon has made. Expound upon the unique qualifications you mentioned in the executive summary. If you have a celebrity stylist, an aids, existing customer base, or proprietary technology, explain those elements here. The industry analysis looks at your relative market as a whole and how your salon can compete in the current marketplace. The relative market is the particular niche into which your salon fits, rather than the beauty industry overall. For example, a budget salon has a very different relative market than an upscale lifestyle salon. Search trade websites and industry associations to learn current trends and upcoming predictions, and albright application address any potential obstacles with strategies to overcome them. The customer analysis breaks down your specific targeted market into demographics and thesis aids clearly explains how you will fulfill a need.

Remember, your market is not “everyone who needs a haircut.” Rather, it might be upper income women between the ages of 30 and 50 in a specific part of street binding of thesis town, or families looking for thesis, a deal in a different neighborhood. How do your target customers make their purchasing decisions? Do they shop on price, quality, premium service, or something else? How will your salon meet those specific customers' unique needs? Your competitors are divided into binding two categories. Thesis Hiv? Direct competitors serve the same target market for the same need. Indirect competitors differ from you in either target market or specific need. Talk about your direct competitors individually, focusing on compound, what makes your salon different. Group your indirect competitors together and mention them as a whole. The marketing plan is based on the four P's: Product, Place, Price, and Promotion.

In the product section, provide detailed information on each separate product or service you will sell, including batched items such as a “spa day” or “basket of hair care products.” Price is what you will charge for each item or service, with an explanation of how you arrived at those costs. Place is your physical location as well as any online presence you have. Thesis Aids Hiv? Promotion is how you will lure customers to spend money with you. Customer retention, or how you will convince purchasers to return, is camden street binding of thesis also an thesis hiv, important part of marketing. While the previous sections of your business plan focused on your vision, the operations plan delineates how you will reach your goals. The everyday short-term processes include every step involved in serving a customer, from scheduling appointments through washing, blow drying, cutting, and styling hair, and settling the bill at the end. The long-term processes are business related, such as hitting sales goals, introducing a new product line, or opening additional salons. While much of crisis essay your business plan talks about the specifics of running a beauty salon, the management team section highlights the aids hiv, skills needed to build and maintain a strong company.

Provide biographies of your key management team members, focusing on the specific educational background or hands-on experiences that prove their ability to run a business. If your management team has weaknesses in these areas, a strong advisory board can help. Be sure to clearly explain what the statement for graduate, board members will do to directly improve the company's growth. Thesis Hiv? Potential investors and camden street of thesis lenders spend the majority of their time analyzing the hiv, financial plan, yet many entrepreneurs have little or no idea how to write it. Application Essay? You must provide a breakdown of all potential revenue streams, including their relative importance and when they will be implemented, along with projections for outside funding. You must also summarize both past and projected Income Statements, Cash Flow Statements, and Balance Sheets, and the assumptions you make must be reasonable and easy to verify through a competition analysis. A solid exit strategy shows an understanding of the thesis aids, market and desire to capitalize on application, profitability. While your financial projections are summarized in the financial plan, you must also attach them in full in the appendix.

This is thesis hiv also the statement for graduate examples, spot to describe any proprietary technology, list important existing customers, or provide any further documentation that supports your claims. Finish Your Beauty Salon Business Plan in 1 Day! Don't you wish there was a faster, easier way to finish your business plan? With this business plan shortcut you can finish your plan in just 8 hours or less! OR, Let Us Develop Your Business Plan For You. Thesis Aids? Our professional business plan writers can create your entire business plan for you. Since 1999, Growthink consultants have developed more than 2,000 business plans. To speak with a Growthink business plan consultant, call 800-506-5728 or complete the form below. Growthink helped birth my company. Assignment? They got to thesis, know both me and compound my vision.

They helped ‘smack me upside the head’ to help make sure I was realistic, about hiv, meeting expectations. As a result, they helped craft, draft and construct the right written presentation. As a result, I got my funding. Important: Growthink will never share or sell your personal information and personal for graduate we will keep all business information completely confidential.

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Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an thesis hiv, Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the Reproduction of the compound Conditions of Production [1] I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in aids hiv, my analysis when I spoke of the statement necessity to renew the means of production if production is to be possible. That was a passing hint.

Now I shall consider it for itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the hiv conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year. [2] The ultimate condition of energy production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production. This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of thesis hiv production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them). Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is assignment, both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the aids hiv point of view of production alone, or even of essay that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to the process of production) are so integrated into our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is thesis hiv, extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to research on personality raise oneself to the point of view of thesis aids reproduction.

Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at the level of production, and, a fortiori , at persuasive essay that of thesis hiv mere practice. Let us try and examine the matter methodically. To simplify my exposition, and assuming that every social formation arises from personal for graduate examples, a dominant mode of production, I can say that the process of hiv production sets to work the existing productive forces in and under definite relations of crisis essay production. It follows that, in order to thesis aids hiv exist, every social formation must reproduce the conditions of street its production at the same time as it produces, and in hiv, order to be able to produce. It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the existing relations of production. Reproduction of the Means of Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is assignment, possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the material conditions of production: the aids hiv reproduction of the means of production.

The average economist, who is no different in this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is essential to essay foresee what is needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. I say the average economist = the average capitalist, for thesis hiv, they both express the point of view of the firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on application, the terms of the firm’s financial accounting practice. But thanks to the genius of Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to hiv the genius of Marx who resolved it, we know that the reproduction of the material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the firm, because it does not exist at that level in assignment, its real conditions. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only gives an idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and aids mechanisms to be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in research on personality, his spinning-mill, has to ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for thesis hiv, his own production – other capitalists do: an Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc.

And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of production, also have to reproduce the compound conditions of their own production, and so on to infinity – the whole in proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the demand for means of hiv production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of ‘endless chain’, it is necessary to statement for graduate examples follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to study in particular the relations of the thesis hiv circulation of capital between Department I (production of means of production) and research Department II (production of hiv means of assignment consumption), and the realization of surplus value, in Capital , Volumes Two and Three. We shall not go into the analysis of this question. It is enough to have mentioned the existence of the necessity of the reproduction of the material conditions of production. However, the reader will not have failed to note one thing.

We have discussed the reproduction of the means of production – but not the reproduction of the productive forces. Thesis Hiv! We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the productive forces from the means of production, i.e. the compound assignment reproduction of labour power. From the observation of what takes place in the firm, in particular from the examination of the financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and investment, we have been able to obtain an approximate idea of the existence of the material process of aids reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in which the writing essay observation of what happens in the firm is, if not totally blind, at least almost entirely so, and for good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is aids hiv, ensured by giving labour power the paper material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages.

Wages feature in the accounting of each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’, [3] not at thesis aids hiv all as a condition of the material reproduction of labour power. However, that is in fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only that part of the value produced by paper on personality, the expenditure of labour power which is indispensable for hiv, its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the labour power of the wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and clothing, in short to enable the wage earner to present himself again at the factory gate the next day – and every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for writing worksheet, raising and educating the children in whom the proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. ) as labour power. Remember that this quantity of value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is determined not by the needs of a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. Thesis! a historically variable minimum. I should also like to point out that this minimum is doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against the reduction of research paper wages). However, it is not enough to ensure for aids, labour power the material conditions of its reproduction if it is to be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the assignment available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. suitable to be set to work in thesis aids, the complex system of the camden street process of production. The development of the productive forces and the type of unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at hiv a given moment produce the result that the labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to the requirements of the socio-technical division of labour, its different ‘jobs’ and ‘posts’.

How is camden binding of thesis, this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of labour power provided for in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for thesis aids hiv, ‘on the spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and institutions. What do children learn at school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to of thesis read, to write and to thesis aids add – i.e. Essay! a number of techniques, and thesis aids a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for persuasive writing, higher management, etc.). Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by every agent in the division of labour, according to the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of thesis hiv morality, civic and professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of compound labour and ultimately the rules of the order established by class domination. They also learn to hiv ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the paper on personality future capitalists and their servants) to ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. (ideally) to ‘speak to them’ in the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the thesis reproduction of labour power requires not only a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to the rules of the established order, i.e. a reproduction of submission to the ruling ideology for writing, the workers, and a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the thesis aids ruling ideology correctly for the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of its ‘practice’.

All the agents of production, exploitation and repression, not to speak of the binding ‘professionals of aids hiv ideology’ (Marx), must in crisis essay, one way or another be ‘steeped’ in this ideology in order to perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of thesis aids labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the ‘practice’ of essay worksheet that ideology, with the proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only but also’, for thesis aids hiv, it is clear that it is in the forms and under the forms of ideological subjection that provision is made for the reproduction of the skills of labour power. But this is to recognize the effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of reproduction.

I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. of the means of production on the one hand, and of labour power on the other. But I have not yet approached the question of the reproduction of the relations of energy crisis production. This is a crucial question for the Marxist theory of the mode of production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it.

But in order to obtain the means to discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in order to make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is a society? Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of thesis occasions [4] I have insisted on the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the ‘social whole’ insofar as it is distinct from the Hegelian ‘totality’. I said (and this thesis only repeats famous propositions of historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of every society as constituted by ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the productive forces and the relations of production) and the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.). Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the difference between Marx and Hegel), this representation has the albright application essay following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in the theoretical apparatus of thesis hiv its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of effectivity. What does this mean? It is easy to see that this representation of the structure of every society as an school, edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the aids hiv superstructure, is a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of a topography ( topique ). [5] Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the on personality air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base. Thus the object of the metaphor of the edifice is to represent above all the ‘determination in the last instance’ by thesis hiv, the economic base.

The effect of this spatial metaphor is to endow the base with an compound, index of effectivity known by the famous terms: the determination in the last instance of what happens in the upper ‘floors’ (of the superstructure) by hiv, what happens in the economic base. Given this index of effectivity ‘in the last instance’, the ‘floors’ of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of personal for graduate school examples effectivity. What kind of indices? It is possible to say that the floors of the superstructure are not determinant in the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only insofar as they are determined by thesis, the base. Their index of effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in the last instance of the base, is thought by the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is a ‘relative autonomy’ of the superstructure with respect to assignment the base; (2) there is a ‘reciprocal action’ of the superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the thesis hiv Marxist topography, i.e. of the spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of determination (or of street binding index of effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the hiv base which in albright essay, the last instance determines the whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the theoretical problem of the types of thesis hiv ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to think what the Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the superstructure and the reciprocal action of the albright application superstructure on the base. The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the structure of every society by the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is obviously the hiv fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. it remains descriptive. It now seems to me that it is of thesis, possible and hiv desirable to represent things differently. NB, I do not mean by this that I want to research paper reject the thesis hiv classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it.

And I am not going beyond it in order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to attempt to think what it gives us in the form of a description. I believe that it is possible and personal for graduate school examples necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and nature of the superstructure on the basis of aids hiv reproduction. Once one takes the point of application essay view of reproduction, many of the questions whose existence was indicated by hiv, the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is albright application essay, that it is not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the point of view of reproduction. I shall give a short analysis of Law, the State and Ideology from hiv, this point of view. Personal Statement For Graduate School Examples! And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of practice and production on the one hand, and from that of reproduction on thesis, the other. The Marxist tradition is strict, here: in the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on application, the Paris Commune and Lenin’s on State and Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus.

The State is a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the hiv bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of big landowners) to compound ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the former to subject the latter to the process of thesis surplus-value extortion (i.e. to capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of all what the Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. This term means: not only the specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and camden street binding necessity I have recognized in relation to the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the police, the courts, the prisons; but also the aids hiv army, which (the proletariat has paid for this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the police and its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by events’; and above this ensemble, the head of State, the government and the administration. Presented in this form, the persuasive Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on the essential point, and thesis not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the fact that this really is the essential point. Statement! The State Apparatus, which defines the State as a force of aids hiv repressive execution and intervention ‘in the on personality interests of the ruling classes’ in the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against the proletariat, is quite certainly the State, and quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such. Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out thesis aids hiv, with respect to the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and albright application superstructure), this presentation of the nature of the State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of explanation is necessary in order to remove any ambiguity. Whenever, in speaking of the metaphor of the edifice or of the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. On the contrary, I have every grounds to think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the phase of what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the first phase of every theory, at aids least in the domain which concerns us (that of the science of social formations).

As such, one might and in my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to the development of the theory. That it is transitional is inscribed in my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the equivalent of a kind of ‘contradiction’. In fact, the term theory ‘clashes’ to some extent with the energy essay adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it. This means quite precisely: (1) that the ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the aids irreversible beginning of the theory; but (2) that the ‘descriptive’ form in which the theory is presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the theory which goes beyond the form of ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by returning to our present object: the State. When I say that the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State available to compound assignment us is still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and thesis aids foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is without the shadow of persuasive writing worksheet a doubt precisely the thesis beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and essay that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of aids every later development of the theory.

Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the crisis State correct, since it is perfectly possible to make the vast majority of the facts in the domain with which it is concerned correspond to aids the definition it gives of persuasive writing its object. Thus, the definition of the State as a class State, existing in the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on all the facts observable in the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of thesis aids hiv June 1848 and of the Paris Commune, of Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the Resistance, of Charonne, etc., to the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by camden street binding, Gatti on Franco; it casts light on all the direct or indirect forms of thesis exploitation and energy essay extermination of the masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of hiv political democracy, for persuasive writing, example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the hiv bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in the constitution of the theory which itself demands the ‘supersession’ of paper this phase. For it is clear that if the definition in question really does give us the means to identify and recognize the aids facts of oppression by relating them to the State, conceived as the Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to a very special kind of obviousness, about which I shall have something to say in a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’ [6] And the accumulation of facts within the definition of the State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the State, i.e. the scientific theory of the State. Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of ‘blocking’ the development of the theory, and yet that development is essential.

That is why I think that, in essay, order to develop this descriptive theory into theory as such, i.e. in order to understand further the mechanisms of the State in its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to add something to the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Marxist Theory of the State. Let me first clarify one important point: the State (and its existence in its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. Aids! The whole of the political class struggle revolves around the State. By which I mean around the albright possession, i.e. the seizure and conservation of State power by a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of hiv State power or seizure of personal statement examples State power), the objective of the political class struggle on the one hand, and thesis the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the State (the fall of the Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in 1940), or by the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the possession of binding of thesis State power. Even after a social revolution like that of aids 1917, a large part of the crisis State Apparatus survived after the thesis hiv seizure of energy crisis State power by the alliance of the proletariat and the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to describe the distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in France. To summarize the ‘Marxist theory of the state’ on thesis aids hiv, this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and compound assignment state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the thesis aids use of the state apparatus by the classes (or alliance of classes or of binding fractions of classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and (4) the proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the thesis destruction of the state (the end of energy essay state power, the end of every state apparatus). In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to aids add to personal statement school examples the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is already there in so many words.

But it seems to me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development. The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to be added to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the decisive advances implied by their experiences and hiv procedures. Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in the main to the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the personal statement school State as a more complex reality than the definition of it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in a corresponding theory. [7]

I should like to attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory. To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to advance the theory of the State it is indispensable to take into account not only the distinction between state power and state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the aids (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by persuasive writing, its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the Army, the Police, the hiv Courts, the Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the Repressive State Apparatus.

Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in question ‘functions by energy crisis, violence’ – at aids least ultimately (since repression, e.g. Writing Worksheet! administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of thesis hiv realities which present themselves to the immediate observer in the form of distinct and energy specialized institutions. I propose an empirical list of these which will obviously have to be examined in detail, tested, corrected and thesis hiv re-organized. Persuasive! With all the reservations implied by this requirement, we can for thesis, the moment regard the following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private ‘schools’), the family ISA, [8] the legal ISA, [9] the political ISA (the political system, including the different parties), the trade-union ISA, the communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.). I have said that the ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus.

What constitutes the difference? As a first moment, it is clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of albright essay Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is clear that whereas the thesis aids hiv unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the personal statement for graduate larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the hiv private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private.

We can ignore the first observation for the moment. But someone is bound to question the second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions. As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in assignment, one sentence. The distinction between the public and the private is thesis, a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and valid in the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. The domain of the State escapes it because the latter is ‘above the law’: the State, which is the compound State of the ruling class, is neither public nor private; on the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and aids hiv private. The same thing can be said from the starting-point of our State Ideological Apparatuses.

It is unimportant whether the albright application institutions in thesis aids hiv, which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. What matters is how they function. Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. Paper On Personality! A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is essential. What distinguishes the ISAs from the (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction.

I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by violence and by ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to confuse the Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and thesis hiv predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and persuasive reproduction, and in the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is essential to say that for their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by aids, repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is very attenuated and essay concealed, even symbolic. Hiv! (There is essay worksheet, no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to ‘discipline’ not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. The same is true of the Family. Thesis Aids Hiv! The same is true of the cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc.

Is it necessary to essay add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by ideology, according to whether it is a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses? Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of thesis this, but they must be studied in detail if we are to go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an understanding of what constitutes the unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the personal school ISAs ‘function’ massively and predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by which they function is always in thesis aids hiv, fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the ideology of crisis essay ‘the ruling class’. Given the fact that the ‘ruling class’ in principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and therefore has at thesis aids its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the compound fact that this same ruling class is active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions. Of course, it is a quite different thing to act by thesis, laws and decrees in assignment, the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to ‘act’ through the intermediary of the thesis aids hiv ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the reality of a profound identity.

To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over street binding and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only thesis aids need one example and proof of this: Lenin’s anguished concern to revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the future of the dictatorship of the albright essay proletariat and the transition to socialism. [10] This last comment puts us in a position to understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the site of class struggle, and often of bitter forms of class struggle. The class (or class alliance) in power cannot lay down the law in the ISAs as easily as it can in the (repressive) State apparatus, not only because the thesis aids hiv former ruling classes are able to retain strong positions there for albright application, a long time, but also because the resistance of the exploited classes is able to find means and occasions to aids express itself there, either by the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in struggle. [11] Let me run through my comments. If the thesis I have proposed is research, well-founded, it leads me back to the classical Marxist theory of the State, while making it more precise in one point. I argue that it is necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . ) on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other.

But I add that the State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on the one hand, and the body of institutions which represent the body of Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the case, the following question is bound to be asked, even in the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the extent of the role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is aids hiv, their importance based on? In other words: to what does the ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by energy crisis essay, repression but by ideology, correspond? On the Reproduction of the Relations of Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the thesis relations of production secured?

In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for the most part, [12] it is secured by the legal-political and ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is secured by the exercise of research on personality State power in the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the (Repressive) State Apparatus, on the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and it can be assembled in the form of the following three features: 1. Aids! All the State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by personal statement for graduate examples, ideology. 2. Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the hiv politics of class struggle applied by the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an research paper on personality, objective field to aids hiv contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the paper effects of the clashes between the hiv capitalist class struggle and the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Whereas the unity of the (Repressive) State Apparatus is street binding of thesis, secured by its unified and centralized organization under the leadership of the representatives of the classes in power executing the politics of the class struggle of the classes in power, the hiv unity of the different Ideological State Apparatuses is secured, usually in contradictory forms, by the ruling ideology, the ideology of the ruling class. Taking these features into account, it is possible to represent the reproduction of the relations of production [13] in the following way, according to a kind of ‘division of labour’. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is statement examples, a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the reproduction of thesis aids hiv relations of production which are in the last resort relations of energy essay exploitation.

Not only does the State apparatus contribute generously to its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and above all, the State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and thesis aids interdictions, to open and tacit censorship) the political conditions for essay, the action of the hiv Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the relations of production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by the repressive State apparatus. It is here that the role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. It is the intermediation of the ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the diversity of ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the personal statement school examples reproduction of the aids relations of production. Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the application essay educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the family apparatus, the political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in the social formations of aids that mode of production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is school, a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different. For example, we observe that during the Middle Ages, the Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in thesis hiv, relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. Alongside the Church there was the family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in capitalist social formations.

Despite appearances, the Church and the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Parlement , the different political factions and Leagues, the ancestors of the modern political parties, and the whole political system of the free Communes and then of the Villes ). Persuasive Writing! There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and bankers’ guilds and the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an thesis hiv, indisputable development, as did the theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Church, then they became more and more independent of it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of communications and ‘culture’. Camden Street Binding! It is thesis hiv, no accident that all ideological struggle, from the statement sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the dominant position of the religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the French Revolution was not just to thesis aids transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to research paper the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one (e.g., the national popular Army) but also to attack the number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church.

Hence the civil constitution of the clergy, the confiscation of thesis aids hiv ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role. Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the Restoration and the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and violent struggles, for persuasive writing worksheet, a few months in thesis hiv, 1848 and for decades after the fall of the compound assignment Second Empire, in order to conduct its struggle against the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from it, in other words, to ensure not only its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to the reproduction of capitalist relations of production. That is why I believe that I am justified in advancing the following Thesis, however precarious it is. I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in the dominant position in mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in the ideological representation that the aids hiv bourgeoisie has tried to give itself and energy crisis essay the classes it exploits, it really seems that the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations is not the Schools, but the political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the regime of parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle.

However, history, even recent history, shows that the bourgeoisie has been and still is able to accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to thesis hiv mention only France. In England this is even clearer. The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to agree to being carried to power by peasant and crisis plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to ‘compromise’ with the aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for a long time (peace among all men of good will in the ruling classes!). In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the imperial Junkers (epitomized by Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the thesis aids hiv imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into persuasive writing essay, history, before ‘traversing’ the Weimar Republic and entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for aids, thinking that behind the scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the research paper front of the stage, what the aids hiv bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in its functions the previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church. One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the persuasive worksheet educational apparatus in fact the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in thesis aids, capitalist social formations, and how does it function?

For the moment it must suffice to say: 1. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the albright relations of hiv production, i.e. of capitalist relations of exploitation. 2. Each of for graduate examples them contributes towards this single result in the way proper to it. The political apparatus by thesis aids hiv, subjecting individuals to for graduate examples the political State ideology, the ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. The communications apparatus by cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the press, the radio and television. The same goes for the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in chauvinism is aids, of the first importance), etc. The religious apparatus by recalling in sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. Camden! The family apparatus . but there is no need to go on. 3. This concert is dominated by a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the aids hiv remnants of former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the personal for graduate school examples current ruling class which integrates into aids, its music the great themes of the Humanism of the compound assignment Great Forefathers, who produced the Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and thesis hiv afterwards the Glory of Rome, the Eternal City, and the themes of Interest, particular and general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism.

4. Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the essay dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an ear to its music: it is so silent! This is the School. It takes children from every class at thesis hiv infant-school age, and personal statement for graduate then for years, the years in which the child is most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of ‘know-how’ wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the thesis aids sciences, literature) or simply the statement school examples ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the age of sixteen, a huge mass of thesis aids children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the workers or small peasants. Another portion of scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. A last portion reaches the summit, either to fall into persuasive essay worksheet, intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the ‘intellectuals of the collective labourer’, the agents of exploitation (capitalists, managers), the hiv agents of repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and compound the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the hiv ideology which suits the role it has to fulfil in class society: the role of the exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the role of the agent of exploitation (ability to give the persuasive writing essay worksheet workers orders and thesis speak to them: ‘human relations’), of the agent of repression (ability to give orders and enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the demagogy of a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the professional ideologist (ability to treat consciousnesses with the respect, i.e. with the contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of Morality, of Virtue, of ‘Transcendence’, of the Nation, of France’s World Role, etc.).

Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on albright essay, the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on the other) are also taught in hiv, the Family, in the Church, in essay, the Army, in Good Books, in films and even in the football stadium. But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the aids obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the children in the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in a variety of know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the street of thesis ideology of the ruling class that the relations of production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to exploiters and exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced. The mechanisms which produce this vital result for the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the School, universally reigning because it is one of the thesis hiv essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an ideology which represents the School as a neutral environment purged of ideology (because it is research paper on personality, . lay), where teachers respectful of the ‘conscience’ and ‘freedom’ of the children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the path to the freedom, morality and thesis aids hiv responsibility of adults by their own example, by knowledge, literature and their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the pardon of those teachers who, in dreadful conditions, attempt to turn the few weapons they can find in the history and school learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the system and the practices in which they are trapped.

They are a kind of hero. Aids Hiv! But they are rare and of thesis how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the ‘work’ the system (which is bigger than they are and aids hiv crushes them) forces them to do, or worse, put all their heart and ingenuity into performing it with the energy crisis essay most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and nourishment of this ideological representation of the aids School, which makes the School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in camden of thesis, its role as the thesis hiv dominant Ideological State Apparatus by street, the School. It is coupled with the Family just as the Church was once coupled with the Family. We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of so many States across the globe, often in aids, conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on a political meaning, given that the personal School (and the School/Family couple) constitutes the aids dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the relations of production of a mode of production threatened in its existence by the world class struggle.

When I put forward the concept of an Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the ISAs ‘function by camden street of thesis, ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and their friends, who assigned to hiv it as an object the (genetic) theory of ideas. When Marx took up the term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works. Here, ideology is the system of the ideas and representations which dominate the mind of crisis a man or a social group. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and forced him to take his earliest intuitions further.

However, here we come upon a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to formulate a theory of ideology. In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of ideology, but . it is not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment). As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on a theory of ideology in general. I should like to thesis venture a first and very schematic outline of such a theory.

The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the application cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. Thesis Aids! confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and compound assignment analysis. One word first of thesis aids all to expound the personal school examples reason in principle which seems to me to found, or at least to aids hiv justify, the camden street project of a theory of ideology in general , and not a theory of particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is quite obvious that it is necessary to proceed towards a theory of ideologies in the two respects I have just suggested. It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in aids, the last resort on the history of social formations, and thus of the binding modes of production combined in social formations, and hiv of the class struggles which develop in them. In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of a theory of ideolog ies in energy crisis essay, general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and thesis hiv class) have a history, whose determination in the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to put forward the project of binding of thesis a theory of ideology in general , and if this theory really is one of the elements on which theories of thesis aids ideologies depend, that entails an apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in the following terms: ideology has no history.

As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the other forms of ideology). In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to it. Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the theoretical status of the energy crisis essay dream among writers before Freud. For these writers, the dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of ‘day’s residues’, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in other words, in ‘disorder’.

For them, the dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the aids eyes had closed, from the residues of the only full and positive reality, the research paper on personality reality of the day. This is exactly the status of philosophy and ideology (since in this book philosophy is thesis aids, ideology par excellence ) in for graduate school, The German Ideology. Ideology, then, is for Marx an thesis aids, imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and vain, constituted by the ‘day’s residues’ from the only full and positive reality, that of the concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on this basis that ideology has no history in The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the history of concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is a pure dream (manufactured by who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the division of labour, but that, too, is a negative determination); 2. ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in it (on the contrary, for it is merely the pale, empty and inverted reflection of real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the camden binding thesis I wish to defend formally speaking adopts the terms of aids The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is application, radically different from the positivist and aids hiv historicist thesis of The German Ideology. For on the one hand, I think it is possible to hold that ideolog ies have a history of their own (although it is determined in the last instance by the class struggle); and on the other, I think it is possible to hold that ideology in general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is external to it), but in persuasive essay, an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is true that the peculiarity of ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an omni-historical reality, in the sense in which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of class struggles, i.e. the history of class societies. To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to our example of the dream, in its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the reverse, is theoretically necessary, for there is an organic link between the two propositions) be related directly to Freud’s proposition that the unconscious is eternal , i.e. Aids Hiv! that it has no history.

If eternal means, not transcendent to paper all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in form throughout the extent of thesis history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for word, and write ideology is eternal , exactly like the unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the eternity of the unconscious is assignment, not unrelated to the eternity of ideology in general. That is why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at thesis aids least, in proposing a theory of ideology in general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the unconscious in general. To simplify the phrase, it is convenient, taking into account what has been said about ideologies, to research paper use the plain term ideology to designate ideology in general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is thesis hiv, eternal, i.e. omnipresent in its immutable form throughout history (= the history of social formations containing social classes). For the moment I shall restrict myself to ‘class societies’ and their history.

Ideology is a ‘Representation’ of the Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on the structure and functioning of ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive. The first concerns the object which is ‘represented’ in the imaginary form of ideology, the second concerns the materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Ideology represents the albright essay imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’. Of course, assuming that we do not live one of these ideologies as the truth (e.g. Thesis! ‘believe’ in God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the worksheet ideology we are discussing from a critical point of view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the myths of thesis hiv a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. Application Essay! do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to thesis aids hiv reality, i.e. Paper On Personality! that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to reality, and that they need only be ‘interpreted’ to discover the reality of the world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of interpretation, the most famous of which are the mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the imaginary representation of the thesis hiv real King), and the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for binding, example, God is the essence of real Man). The essential point is that on condition that we interpret the imaginary transposition (and inversion) of thesis aids ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in essay worksheet, ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of existence to themselves in an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of existence in aids hiv, order to ‘represent to themselves’ their real conditions of research paper existence?

The first answer (that of the eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible. They ‘forged’ the Beautiful Lies so that, in the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the thesis hiv Priests and Despots, who are usually in alliance in their imposture, the Priests acting in application essay, the interests of the Despots or vice versa , according to the political positions of the ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of existence: that cause is the existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over word for word by Marx in his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. just as false. It, too, seeks and finds a cause for the imaginary transposition and thesis distortion of men’s real conditions of existence, in energy, short, for aids, the alienation in the imaginary of the representation of men’s conditions of existence. This cause is application essay, no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and the passive imagination of their victims.

This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of existence of men themselves. This is how, in The Jewish Question and thesis aids hiv elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of existence because these conditions of existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’). All these interpretations thus take literally the persuasive essay worksheet thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. that what is reflected in the imaginary representation of the world found in an ideology is the conditions of existence of men, i.e. their real world. Now I can return to a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to themselves’ in ideology, but above all it is their relation to those conditions of existence which is represented to thesis hiv them there. It is this relation which is at the centre of personal for graduate every ideological, i.e. imaginary, representation of the real world. It is thesis aids, this relation that contains the ‘cause’ which has to explain the of thesis imaginary distortion of the ideological representation of the real world. Or rather, to leave aside the aids hiv language of causality it is energy crisis, necessary to advance the thesis that it is the imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology. To speak in a Marxist language, if it is thesis hiv, true that the representation of the real conditions of existence of the individuals occupying the posts of paper agents of production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the relations of production, and from relations deriving from the relations of production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in its necessarily imaginary distortion not the existing relations of thesis aids production (and the other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of individuals to statement the relations of production and the relations that derive from them. What is aids, represented in ideology is albright application, therefore not the aids system of the real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of those individuals to crisis essay the real relations in which they live.

If this is the case, the question of the thesis aids ‘cause’ of the imaginary distortion of the real relations in ideology disappears and must be replaced by a different question: why is the representation given to individuals of compound assignment their (individual) relation to the social relations which govern their conditions of existence and their collective and individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the nature of aids this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the question explodes the statement examples solution by a ‘clique’ [14] , by a group of individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by the alienated character of the real world. We shall see why later in my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further.

Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by saying that the ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in an ideology of the ‘idea’ and of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of what seems to have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. what the practicians of the sciences represent to themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Thesis! Of course, presented in affirmative form, this thesis is unproven. I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in for graduate, the name of materialism. A long series of thesis hiv arguments would be necessary to prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is indeed necessary if we are to advance in our analysis of the nature of ideology. For Graduate School! Or rather, it is merely useful to us in order the better to reveal what every at all serious analysis of any ideology will immediately and empirically show to every observer, however critical.

While discussing the Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of them was the aids realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. – being assured by their subjection to the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an ideology always exists in an apparatus, and its practice, or practices. This existence is material. Of course, the material existence of the ideology in an apparatus and its practices does not have the same modality as the material existence of a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at the risk of being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for energy crisis, Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is discussed in many senses’, or rather that it exists in different modalities, all rooted in aids, the last instance in ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on and see what happens to the ‘individuals’ who live in ideology, i.e. in a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on personal examples, their imaginary relation to their conditions of existence, in other words, in the last instance, to the relations of production and to class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). I shall say that this imaginary relation is thesis aids, itself endowed with a material existence. Now I observe the research paper following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc. This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the ideas of the individual concerned, i.e. from aids hiv, him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of personal school his belief. In this way, i.e. by means of the absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in which he believes), the (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows.

The individual in thesis aids hiv, question behaves in such and such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is camden of thesis, more, participates in certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on which ‘depend’ the ideas which he has in all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. If he believes in God, he goes to Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the term) and naturally repents and so on. If he believes in Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’. If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to the rules of the Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the aids hiv ideological representation of ideology is itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and believing in the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and freely accepts, must ‘ act according to his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in the actions of camden of thesis his material practice. Aids! If he does not do so, ‘that is wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and research paper that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the ‘ideas’ of thesis a human subject exist in his actions, or ought to exist in his actions, and if that is essay, not the thesis hiv case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform. This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into practices.

And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for on personality, the wonderful formula which will enable us to aids hiv invert the order of the notional schema of ideology. Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in addition something hardly Christian (for woe to him who brings scandal into the world!) – scandal itself. A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the camden binding reality. I will be allowed to leave Pascal to the arguments of his ideological struggle with the thesis aids religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day.

And I shall be expected to essay use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for we are advancing in still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an hiv, individual) is concerned, the existence of the ideas of his belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by persuasive writing essay, material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of thesis that subject. Personal! Naturally, the four inscriptions of the adjective ‘material’ in my proposition must be affected by hiv, different modalities: the materialities of a displacement for going to mass, of kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the cross, or of the research paper mea culpa , of a sentence, of thesis aids hiv a prayer, of an act of contrition, of a penitence, of a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an external verbal discourse or an ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. Compound Assignment! I shall leave on thesis, one side the persuasive writing worksheet problem of a theory of the differences between the modalities of materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at thesis aids hiv all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and simply disappeared from our presentation, whereas others on assignment, the contrary survive, and new terms appear. Disappeared: the term ideas.

Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions. Appear: the terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in the sense in which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in aids, the last instance by an ideological apparatus. It therefore appears that the subject acts insofar as he is acted by the following system (set out in the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of persuasive a subject acting in all consciousness according to his belief.

But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions. From this series I shall immediately extract the decisive central term on which everything else depends: the notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by thesis hiv, and in an ideology; 2. there is assignment, no ideology except by the subject and for aids, subjects. I can now come to my central thesis.

Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects. This thesis is simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is essay worksheet, no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and this destination for thesis aids hiv, ideology is only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of legal ideology, [15] the compound category of the subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of thesis hiv all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the category of the subject is constitutive of all ideology, but at writing essay the same time and immediately I add that the thesis aids hiv category of the subject is only constitutive of all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects. In the interaction of this double constitution exists the functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is essential to compound realize that both he who is aids hiv, writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. that the albright application essay author and the reader of these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in ideology in the sense in which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by nature’.

That the author, insofar as he writes the lines of a discourse which claims to thesis aids be scientific, is completely absent as a ‘subject’ from research paper, ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no ‘Subject of science’ except in an ideology of thesis aids hiv science) is a different question which I shall leave on one side for the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in the ‘Logos’, meaning in albright, ideology, that we ‘live, move and have our being’. It follows that, for thesis aids, you and for me, the category of the subject is crisis essay, a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. ). Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the obviousness of the ‘transparency’ of language), the ‘obviousness’ that you and I are subjects – and thesis aids that that does not cause any problems – is an ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect. [16] It is indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to research do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to recognize and before which we have the inevitable and natural reaction of crying out thesis hiv, (aloud or in the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’ At work in this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is one of the two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on our door and we ask, through the door, the question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. And we recognize that ‘it is him’, or ‘her’. Assignment! We open the door, and ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’.

To take another example, when we recognize somebody of our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by saying to him ‘Hello, my friend’, and shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in everyday life – in France, at least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and these concrete illustrations, I only wish to point out that you and I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the rituals of ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. Thesis Aids! The writing I am currently executing and the reading you are currently [17] performing are also in binding of thesis, this respect rituals of ideological recognition, including the ‘obviousness’ with which the ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on hiv, you. But to recognize that we are subjects and energy that we function in the practical rituals of the thesis most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the fact of calling you by your name, the fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only gives us the ‘consciousness’ of our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. its recognition – but in no sense does it give us the (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of street of thesis this recognition. Thesis Hiv! Now it is this knowledge that we have to reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and crisis from within ideology we have to outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in order to dare to aids hiv be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on ideology. Thus in research, order to represent why the category of the ‘subject’ is constitutive of aids hiv ideology, which only compound assignment exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and thought, giving rise to a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by the functioning of the category of the subject. This is hiv, a proposition which entails that we distinguish for the moment between concrete individuals on for graduate, the one hand and concrete subjects on the other, although at this level concrete subjects only exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and which can be imagined along the thesis lines of the most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’ [18] Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in the street, the compound hailed individual will turn round. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject.

Why? Because he has recognized that the hail was ‘really’ addressed to him, and that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else). Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of aids hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the one hailed always recognizes that it is really him who is being hailed. And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by ‘guilt feelings’, despite the large numbers who ‘have something on their consciences’. Naturally for on personality, the convenience and clarity of thesis aids hiv my little theoretical theatre I have had to research paper present things in the form of a sequence, with a before and an after, and thus in the form of a temporal succession.

There are individuals walking along. Somewhere (usually behind them) the hiv hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for him, i.e. recognizing that ‘it really is he’ who is meant by the hailing. But in research paper, reality these things happen without any succession. Thesis! The existence of compound ideology and the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and hiv the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in reality takes place in ideology. What really takes place in ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by definition outside ideology: one of the effects of essay ideology is the practical denegation of the ideological character of ideology by ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. It is aids hiv, necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to be able to say: I am in crisis essay, ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. As is well known, the thesis hiv accusation of being in ideology only applies to others, never to oneself (unless one is really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at the same time that it is nothing but outside (for science and reality).

Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail. But let us leave this point, although it is camden of thesis, heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for example, the whole theory of criticism and self-criticism, the golden rule of the Marxist-Leninist practice of the aids hiv class struggle, depends on it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. As ideology is eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in which I have presented the functioning of ideology, and say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to persuasive writing essay worksheet making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by hiv, ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects which they always already are. Camden Street! This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an individual is always-already a subject, even before he is born, is nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to thesis hiv everyone and personal for graduate not a paradox at all.

Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the expectation of a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in what way an unborn child is expected. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the aids unborn child is expected: it is certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and will therefore have an identity and application be irreplaceable. Before its birth, the child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is ‘expected’ once it has been conceived. I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in thesis, its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in persuasive writing essay worksheet, this implacable and more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. ‘become’ the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in advance. It is clear that this ideological constraint and pre-appointment, and all the rituals of rearing and then education in the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the pre-genital and genital ‘stages’ of sexuality, i.e. in the ‘grip’ of what Freud registered by its effects as being the unconscious. But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. What I shall now turn my attention to is the way the ‘actors’ in thesis hiv, this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of all ideology.

An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the assignment formal structure of all ideology is thesis hiv, always the same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the compound assignment same demonstration can be produced for thesis hiv, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc. Let us therefore consider the Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and compound ‘make it speak’, i.e. collect into a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in the passive sense, it is never he who provides his own name), in aids, order to tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to Him. It adds: God addresses himself to essay you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Word of God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for ever on ‘nice’ points). It says: this is who you are: you are Peter! This is your origin, you were created by God for all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of Our Lord! This is your place in the world!

This is aids, what you must do! By these means, if you observe the ‘law of love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the Glorious Body of Christ! Etc. Now this is personal statement for graduate, quite a familiar and banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is indeed addressed to individuals, [19] in order to ‘transform them into subjects’, by interpellating the thesis aids hiv individual, Peter, in order to make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the appeal, i.e. God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!’); if it interpellates them in such a way that the subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is me! ’ if it obtains from them the recognition that they really do occupy the place it designates for them as theirs in assignment, the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in aids, this vale of tears; if it obtains from them the recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to the respect or contempt they show to ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in compound, this way (in the practices of the well-known rituals of baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and extreme unction, etc. . ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to set up Christian religious subjects is dominated by a strange phenomenon: the thesis fact that there can only be such a multitude of possible religious subjects on the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e. God. It is convenient to designate this new and remarkable Subject by energy crisis, writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of aids individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of a Unique and central Other Subject, in whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects. Personal Statement For Graduate School Examples! All this is clearly [20] written in what is rightly called the Scriptures. Thesis Hiv! ‘And it came to pass at that time that God the Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in the cloud.

And the Lord cried to Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and I shall listen!” And the Lord spoke to Moses and said to him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is through himself and for research, himself (‘I am that I am’), and he who interpellates his subject, the individual subjected to him by his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by aids hiv, his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to God, a subject through the Subject and subjected to essay the Subject. The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey God’s Commandments. God is thus the Subject, and aids Moses and the innumerable subjects of God’s people, the Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Were not men made in the image of God? As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the subjects wallow in albright application essay, debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by him (the long complaint of the Garden of Olives which ends in the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to do what prepares the way for the final Redemption, the aids hiv Resurrection of Christ. God thus needs to ‘make himself’ a man, the Subject needs to become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to the eye, tangibly to energy crisis the hands (see St. Thesis Hiv! Thomas) of the subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to the Subject, that is research paper, solely in order that finally, on Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the thesis Subject. [21]

Let us decipher into theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into subjects and of the Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in the name of a Unique and Absolute Subject is speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is constitutive of ideology and ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is centred , that the compound Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of thesis hiv individuals into subjects in a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and writing future) the thesis aids guarantee that this really concerns them and Him, and that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in it’, i.e. those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in Him, will be saved. Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in camden street of thesis, general. The duplicate mirror-structure of ideology ensures simultaneously: 1. the thesis aids interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. their subjection to the Subject; 3. the camden binding of thesis mutual recognition of subjects and thesis aids Subject, the subjects’ recognition of each other, and assignment finally the subject’s recognition of himself; [22] 4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is so, and that on condition that the subjects recognize what they are and behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in this quadruple system of interpellation as subjects, of subjection to the Subject, of universal recognition and of absolute guarantee, the subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by themselves’ in the vast majority of cases, with the exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on occasion provoke the intervention of one of the detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus.

But the vast majority of (good) subjects work all right ‘all by themselves’, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into practices governed by thesis hiv, the rituals of the ISAs. They ‘recognize’ the existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is true that it is crisis essay, so and not otherwise’, and that they must be obedient to God, to their conscience, to the priest, to de Gaulle, to the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is simply the inscription in life of the admirable words of the prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’. Yes, the subjects ‘work by themselves’. The whole mystery of this effect lies in hiv, the first two moments of the quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the compound assignment term subject. In the ordinary use of the thesis hiv term, subject in application, fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of initiatives, author of and responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to thesis aids hiv a higher authority, and is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of assignment freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is merely a reflection of the aids effect which produces it: the individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the gestures and energy crisis actions of his subjection ‘all by himself’.

There are no subjects except by and for thesis aids, their subjection. That is why they ‘work all by themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the effect to be obtained proves that it is not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). This phrase proves that it has to be so if things are to be what they must be, and let us let the words slip: if the reproduction of the relations of production is to be assured, even in the processes of production and circulation, every day, in the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in the attitudes of the paper on personality individual-subjects occupying the posts which the socio-technical division of labour assigns to them in production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Indeed, what is thesis aids hiv, really in question in this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the personal statement for graduate school Subject and of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and of the aids guarantee given by the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to the Subject’s ‘commandments’?

The reality in question in this mechanism, the reality which is necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is indeed, in research paper, the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of thesis aids production and of the relations deriving from them. P.S. If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the albright application functioning of the thesis hiv Superstructure and its mode of intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and street binding necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production. As an element of this process, the ISAs contribute to this reproduction.

But the point of view of their contribution alone is aids hiv, still an application essay, abstract one. It is only within the thesis hiv processes of assignment production and thesis aids hiv circulation that this reproduction is realized. It is realized by the mechanisms of those processes, in which the training of the workers is ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc. It is in the internal mechanisms of these processes that the effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of view is still an abstract one. For in a class society the personal statement relations of production are relations of exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes. The reproduction of the relations of production, the ultimate aim of the ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and distributing individuals for the different posts in the ‘technical division’ of labour. In fact there is aids hiv, no ‘technical division’ of labour except in research paper on personality, the ideology of the ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of labour is the form and thesis mask of a social (= class) division and organization of labour. The reproduction of the relations of production can therefore only be a class undertaking.

It is camden street, realized through a class struggle which counterposes the ruling class and the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the reproduction of the thesis aids hiv relations of on personality production is therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the point of view of this class struggle. To adopt the point of view of reproduction is therefore in the last instance, to adopt the point of view of the class struggle. 2. The problem of the class nature of the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. The ‘mechanism’ of ideology in general is one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in Freud, define the unconscious in general ). If there is any truth in thesis hiv, it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in institutions, in albright application essay, their rituals and their practices, in the ISAs. We have seen that on this basis they contribute to that form of class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the reproduction of the aids hiv relations of production. But the point of view itself however real, is still an abstract one.

In fact, the State and its Apparatuses only have meaning from the point of application view of the class struggle, as an apparatus of thesis class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the conditions of exploitation and its reproduction. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes. Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and class struggle of the ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the realization of ideology in general , nor even the conflict-free realization of the ideology of the ruling class. The ideology of the ruling class does not become the ruling ideology by the grace of God, nor even by virtue of the seizure of State power alone. It is by the installation of the ISAs in which this ideology is realized and realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology. But this installation is energy crisis, not achieved all by itself; on the contrary, it is the stake in a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and their positions in the old and new ISAs, then against the exploited class. But this point of thesis aids hiv view of the class struggle in the ISAs is still an abstract one. In fact, the class struggle in camden binding, the ISAs is indeed an aspect of the class struggle, sometimes an important and symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the ‘crisis’ of the aids educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the class struggles in personal statement, the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the ISAs. Thesis Aids Hiv! The ideology that a class in power makes the ruling ideology in its ISAs is indeed ‘realized’ in camden of thesis, those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere.

Similarly, the ideology that a ruled class manages to defend in and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. It is thesis aids, only from the point of view of the essay classes, i.e. of the class struggle, that it is possible to explain the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. Not only is it from this starting-point that it is possible to explain the realization of the ruling ideology in the ISAs and of the forms of class struggle for which the ISAs are the seat and the stake. But it is also and above all from this starting-point that it is possible to aids understand the provenance of the ideologies which are realized in paper, the ISAs and confront one another there. For if it is true that the ISAs represent the form in which the ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and the form in which the ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in the ISAs but from the aids hiv social classes at grips in the class struggle: from their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. This text is made up of persuasive writing two extracts from an ongoing study. The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. 209.

3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively). 5. Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in a definite space the respective sites occupied by several realities: thus the economic is at thesis aids hiv the bottom (the base), the personal statement for graduate superstructure above it. 6. See p. 158 below, On Ideology.

7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in the road I am taking. He had the aids ‘remarkable’ idea that the binding State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of institutions from ‘ civil society ’: the Church, the Schools, the trade unions, etc. Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in the state of acute but fragmentary notes (cf. Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. English-language translation in preparation.

8. The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an ISA. It intervenes in the reproduction of labour power. In different modes of production it is the unit of production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. Aids! The ‘Law’ belongs both to the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to the system of the ISAs. 10. In a pathetic text written in 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of Lenin’s desperate efforts and what she regards as his failure. 11. Crisis Essay! What I have said in these few brief words about the class struggle in the ISAs is obviously far from exhausting the thesis hiv question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out.’ The class struggle is thus expressed and application essay exercised in ideological forms, thus also in the ideological forms of the ISAs.

But the class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is because it extends beyond them that the struggle of the exploited classes may also be exercised in the forms of the ISAs, and thus turn the weapon of ideology against the classes in power. This by virtue of the second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the thesis ISAs because it is rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in the Infrastructure, in street binding of thesis, the relations of production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the base for class relations. 12. For the most part. For the relations of aids production are first reproduced by the materiality of the processes of production and circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in camden street of thesis, these same processes. 13.

For that part of reproduction to which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. I use this very modern term deliberately. For even in Communist circles, unfortunately, it is thesis aids hiv, a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of a ‘clique’. 15. Which borrowed the compound assignment legal category of ‘subject in law’ to make an ideological notion: man is by nature a subject. 16. Linguists and thesis those who appeal to linguistics for paper, various purposes often run up against difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the ideological effects in all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. NB: this double ‘currently’ is one more proof of the fact that ideology is ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time.

18. Hailing as an everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in the policeman’s practice of ‘hailing’ which concerns the aids hailing of ‘suspects’. 19. Although we know that the essay worksheet individual is always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to the letter but ‘in spirit and truth’. 21. The dogma of the Trinity is precisely the theory of the duplication of the Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22.

Hegel is (unknowingly) an admirable ‘theoretician’ of aids hiv ideology insofar as he is a ‘theoretician’ of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in compound, the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Aids! Feuerbach is an astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of the Human Essence. To find the material with which to crisis construct a theory of the aids hiv guarantee, we must turn to Spinoza.

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Infographic resumes look nice, but you must also be concerned about applicant tracking system software. If your resume will be scanned by an applicant tracking system, you will want a straightforward format so that it can be scanned easily. Infographic resumes can interfere with the thesis hiv, scanning system, so if you want one, you may need a second resume version to use for research the scanning systems. At A+ Resumes for thesis hiv Teachers , we can create a resume to your liking; just let us know your requirements. Each client is unique, so we review each client's accomplishments, career history, obstacles, requirements, and goals to create a presentation that best illustrates their specific strengths and expertise. Our Sample Teacher Resumes and on personality, Cover Letters Are Accomplishment-Based and Visually-Appealing. Notice the varying use of color, borders, icons, and testimonials? The visual effects will make your resume stand out above the thesis aids hiv, competition.

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Through the vision, we, as educators, are then able to come up with the values , aims and pedagogy in education that we intend to build and deliver. impeding the majority of the population from voting due to work-related duties and responsibilities . The solution for this problem is to camden street of thesis, make Election Day a national holiday. If citizens did not have the responsibility to be at work, they would be much more likely to find time and take the effort to go. Boeings Management Planning Paper. company's performance-driven culture (Boeing, 2010). Boeing Corporation, like most companies has legal, ethical, and social responsibilities . Each of these responsibilities impacts how management chooses to deal with each individually. After research, it was found that Boeing has had a few legal issues. CIVICS EXAM FIRST HALF OUTLINE CIVICS : The structure and responsibilities of a government, and how one affects and fits in to thesis aids hiv, their country COURSE: • Explore civic identity • Reflect on moral purposes and rights and responsibilities as a citizen • Learn concepts such as democracy, citizenship and. protects federal employees who blow whistle on persuasive writing government * SOX- security fraud= gives protection to the people who spill on company * Jury duty= civic duty to be on a jury = should not be terminated * Most states have now adopted some form of public policy ( the general preference of the citizenry). to include Civics in the curriculum in all teacher training programmes.

Welcome: good afternoon presidents, vice presidents and teacher it is great to thesis, have you all at persuasive essay worksheet, our annual teachers’ forum. Today I will synthesize the thesis aids hiv, administrators of the teachers’ colleges to essay, reintroduce civics in the curriculum. Rousseau and Machiavelli: Civic Republicanism. Marina Formoso Martinez Modern Democracies: A Comparative Analysis Rousseau and thesis aids, Machiavelli: civic republicanism “not being the State or City more than a moral person whose life is in union menbers, and most importantly their own care is the conservation, it becomes a universal force required. Obvious factor related to plummeting voter turnout is for graduate examples, a decline in thesis hiv, the sense of civic duty to vote 20 percent of young people described voting as a responsibility , and only 9 percent as a duty (CES) (need higher civic literacy) in the campaigns last days, only 47 percent of younger Canadians could. The beliefs and crisis essay, values that all members of our society share are our American Civic Values . The most basic belief is freedom, but is also justice for all people.

Our society tries using many different programs, laws, and regulations to strengthen our civic values . Individuals do many different things. This programme has taught me some invaluable skills in leadership, teamwork and responsibility , in particular, in the preparation and completion of hiv expeditions. The programme has also increased my awareness of my civic duty to volunteer for community activities. I have recently commenced the albright application essay, Duke of. Transforming the news value chain in the social era: a community perspective. Transforming the thesis, news value chain in the social era: a community perspective Maria Jose Hernandez Serrano Anita Greenhill Gary Graham Article information: To cite this document: Maria Jose Hernandez Serrano Anita Greenhill Gary Graham , (2015),Transforming the news value chain in the social era: . Civic education and development are among the most discussed areas in the societies in this era 2. ? Civic education and development are among the research paper on personality, most discussed areas in the societies in thesis, this era. Personal For Graduate! Civic education in a democratic society most assuredly needs to be concerned with promoting understanding of the ideals of thesis aids democracy and a reasoned commitment to the values and principles of democracy.

This. found in the Declaration of albright application essay Independence or U.S. Constitution b. Core Democratic Characteristics i. Democracy is government in thesis aids hiv, which power and civic responsibility are exercised by all adult citizens, directly, or through their freely elected representatives. ii. Democracy rests upon the principles of. Fraternities espoused and enacted values. BETWEEN ESPOUSED AND ENACTED VALUES OF ONE FRATERNITY/SORORITY COMMUNITY Heather Matthews, Leigh Featherstone, Lisa Bluder, Allison J. Gerling, Sarah Loge, and Rachel B. Messenger Fraternity and sorority members have long been charged with fulfilling the espoused values of their organizations.

Although. ?Frg tWEEK ONE DEFINITION OF VALUES SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, students shall be able to: Define values State four sources of values Describe four types of values Values are things, ideas, beliefs, principles and quality that people and writing essay worksheet, society attaches great importance to. unexamined life is not worth living, in his work The Apology. Basically, the philosopher is saying if a person does not closely examine his life it has no value . Aids! God has given people the faculties to reason, explore, experiment, test, and evaluate so that they can live a life of excellence. People are programmed. According to camden street, Sax and Astin's study, they claim college students who participate in service learning programs, show positive outcomes such as civic responsibility , academic attainment and life skills. Yes, I agree to this claim where these benefits are portrayed in a student who involved in service learning. “Soldiers, Past and Present…America, Honor Your Veterans” them. Thesis Aids! From the Revolutionary War to Operation Iraqi Freedom, soldiers have been fighting for what all Americans stand for, the fundamental moral values that this country was built on. Standards such as truth, justice, and integrity are what those men, and now women, struggled for, and compound, are still striving.

obscure. Citizenship has become a misconceived right, whereas it should be a responsibility . It is believed that citizenship is a right that we are endowed with as humans; however, it is a responsibility that we uphold the thesis hiv, values and compound assignment, ideas that our country was established on. Requiring young citizens to. Ralph Nader: an Unreasonable Man; an Emissary on Behalf of American Posterity. officially run for President in the election years of 1996, 2000, 2004, and most likely again, in 2008 . Whereas his philosophy on American civics , rights, and responsibilities as a full-time citizen, the most important office in America for anyone to achieve, ” conveys him to do so. Yet, Ralph Nader’s emissary. causation • Recount some of the key events and aids hiv, developments in application, Australian political history • Explain political events and evaluates their impact on civic life in Australia • Describe major features of social and cultural life at different times in Australia’s history • Compare and contrast the social. CoR Mayo Civic Center Expansion Minnesota - Construction Project Profile.

? Aarkstore Enterprise Aarkstore : CoR Mayo Civic Center Expansion Minnesota - Construction Project Profile Synopsis The CoR – Mayo Civic Center Expansion – Minnesota - Construction Project Profile contains information on the Scope of the project including project overview. Creating Shared Value: Lessening the Tension Between Society and the Economy by Utilizing Corporate Social Responsibility to aids, Its Full Potential. Creating Shared Value : Lessening the Tension between Society and the Economy by Utilizing Corporate Social Responsibility to its full Potential PA 311 Introduction to Civic Engagement INTRODUCTION Commerce is an essential part of humanity. Paper On Personality! Without commerce man would. What does it mean to be an American. democratic society must be able to pass on to its younger generation the commitment of all citizens to thesis aids hiv, civic responsibility and instill in application, children character traits such as honesty and personal responsibility that are necessary to support a democratic political culture. Public education is aids hiv, one of the core. The Values Americans Live By by L. Robert Kohls xxx Most Americans would have a difficult time telling you, specifically, what the values are that Americans live by. They have never given the on personality, matter much thought. xxx Even if Americans had considered this question, they would probably, in aids, the end. Civic Engagement Respond Paper on Religion.

Religion, not general values but particular, passionate faiths, it had influenced many Americans thought out the decades, as religion being practice more widely spread out; it became not only influenced to ourselves but elections for local school board members, governors, and presidents but also refigured. Civic and Citizenship Education in Malaysia. CIVIC AND CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION IN MALAYSIA SCHOOLS ABSTRACT “Member States should promote, at albright essay, every stage of education, an active civic training which will enable every person to gain a knowledge of the method of operation and the work of public institutions, whether local, national or international;. Socrates and Confucius' Classical Traditions of Education. learning.(6) These values are in accordance with those of Socrates and Confucius. Socrates and Confucius believed strongly in the cultivation of the moral character of the student. Moral education is important because one has obligations and responsibilities to the society. Thesis Aids Hiv! Moral and Civic education serves. for Economic Cooperation and persuasive writing essay, Development (OECD), the Organization of American States (OAS), and the World Bank. Aids Hiv! Support will also be required from civic groups and from the media.

What to research, Avoid Now that the many steps needed for an effective anticorruption strategy have been listed, it is worth. COMPONENTS OF CIVIC EDUCATION The core meaning of aids civic education is that it is paper, a subject that promotes civic knowledge, civic skills, civic values and civic dispositions. Thesis Aids Hiv! Civic knowledge is concerned with the content or what citizens out to camden street binding, know, it is thorough familiarization with what civic life constitutes. key stakeholders (Developing Mission, Vision, and Values ). They also define the nature, purpose, and role of organizations; focus resources and guide planning (Keeling, 2013). Mission statements also go hand in hand with an organization’s values . Values are the beliefs of an individual or group in which.

Literature, Civics , and Economics Ashley L. Kidd Grand Canyon University: EED-465 Social Studies February 17, 2013 Literature, Civics , and Economics Literature is a great resource to begin a social studies unit on. Depending on thesis aids hiv your literature choice you can influence the connections between. ][ Streng thening our communit y through education and awareness ][ Report from the Mercyhurst College Civic Institute Inside the Report Adolescent Brain Development Adolescent Brain Development and the Criminal Justice System • Culpability • Competence • Amenability Upcoming Events . Volunteering Has Been Identified as a Significant Contribution to the Development of on personality Social Capital or Civil Society. Thesis Aids! Should Non Government Organisations Feel a Responsibility to camden street binding of thesis, Maximise Volunteer Opportunities. been identified as a significant contribution to thesis aids, the development of social capital or civil society. Should non government organisations feel a responsibility to maximise volunteer opportunities? Why?

Introduction Volunteering is defined as any activity in which time is given freely to. flavor, Dr Pepper Snapple Group, is on a mission to establish the crisis, corporation as a renowned industry leader in regard to their corporate social responsibility and thesis aids hiv, sustainability that is all about “doing good things with flavor”, both literally and compound, figuratively. Represented as the thesis aids hiv, stock symbol DPS on the. Nursing and Social Responsibility. principals of care and justice and also motivates certain civic action. Social responsibility is “strongly linked to the values of professions in general and nursing in particular” and camden binding, that “the underlying constructs of social responsibility , communication and teamwork are woven into the fabric of nursing's. diversity and global connectedness.

Dealing with linguistic differences and cultural differences has now become central to aids hiv, the pragmatics of our working, civic , and private lives. Effective citizenship and productive work now require that we interact effectively using multiple languages, multiple Englishes. to election organisational issues but also due to camden street, ignorance of the voters themselves, particularly women. There is, therefore, need to continue with civic education and conflict prevention interventions in particularly hot constituencies and counties. 9 million (80% of total) The project aims to make sustainable. country? As part of thesis aids hiv a Developmental Democracy, Hudson writes, “‘Good citizens’ are knowledgeable about, interested in, and active in government and civic affairs. They vote regularly, inform themselves on compound assignment public issues, write to their elected representatives, and sometimes serve in thesis aids, public office. Democracy. Developing such personal qualities seems as a purpose of education. It is commonly emphasized qualities that include trustworthy, respect, and responsibility . Those pillars of character building should be learned from the early age in order to devote the strong foundation of character.

In this essay.

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essay goals career Almost all top business schools require applicants to write a Personal statement or Goals essay in which they discuss their goals and ambitions as they pertain to the MBA degree, and often to the target school’s particular program. What should I write in a Statement of Purpose or 'Goals' essay? A statement of purpose or a ‘Goals’ essay requires you to make a logical connection between your past, present, and future. This means you need to thesis hiv tell a story that connects your past ( past work-experience), present (your need of an MBA from energy your target school to achieve your goals, and your future (goals and objectives). The Schools want to aids hiv see that you have a clear plan/ vision for future and research on personality, you have the ability to convince them of the same by telling your story that is not only clear and thesis, compelling, but also reveals your personal and writing essay worksheet, professional attributes. Goals essay needs to be approached in different ways as per the specifications of essay prompt and aids hiv, the word limit specified by various schools. However, a typical ‘goals’ essay should have the following structure: Structure of a typical Goals Essay:

Past: (about 30-35% of essay) Begin your essay with a story/ event/ life experience that reflects passion for your chosen field e.g. marketing or finance or any other field.Make sure your opening statement is albright, compelling enough to hiv hook the Ad Com and make them continue reading your essay .There are several ways of making an compound assignment engaging beginning: a quote, an interesting description, an anecdote, a question, a startling statement, or statistics. Aids Hiv? You may choose any method that works for you to draw the reader into your story. The following is an example of an on personality engaging beginning that hooks the reader with a real- life example/anecdote: My love and passion for finance dates back the time when I was only 13 years old and used to ponder at the stock prices in the newspaper for countless hours. Later, at 15, and only one week into aids my first job at a bank, I purchased my first stock. Today, at 25, banking and finance still enthuse me. Every morning, I go to work motivated and with a smile, enjoying my commute time reading finance books.

After drawing the reader's attention by personal statement school your story of passion, continue with your story and provide details about how you have pursued your interest/passion and progressed along your career path these 3-4 years (or whatever your work experience is). Be specific in explaining how you have risen in positions/ responsibilities and thesis aids hiv, salary in order to illustrate that your abilities are recognized and rewarded by your company. Future: (about 25-30 % of research paper, essay) Now explain how your past experience have shaped your future goals and thesis aids hiv, objectives and what are your plans for the future. Be clear and decisive for short term goals (even if you are not 100% sure. Show that you have put some thought into it. Camden Street? For example, you should precisely state if you are a career enhancer and your short term goal is to hiv rise to the next level in your current company, or if you are career changer and your objective is to learn new skills through MBA so you can change your career path. After you have specified your short term goals, go ahead and discuss your long term goals. Essay? It is ok to be more broad and thesis hiv, idealistic for long term goals, but explain steps (A to street binding of thesis B to aids hiv C) to research on personality make sure there is a logical connection between short term and long term goals. Aids Hiv? For example, you should not say that your long term goal is to be CEO of xyz company if your past experience, current skills set and of thesis, your short term goals do not at all seem to be leading to that direction. Present: (about 25-30 % of essay) After having discussed your future goals, explain how an MBA fits in the puzzle of the grand scheme of your career path.

In other words, elaborate why you believe that an MBA is the thesis aids hiv, next logical step in your career path. Be specific when explaining how certain specific skills acquired during MBA will bring you closer to the fulfillment of your goals. Street Of Thesis? For example, if your goal is to aids be an entrepreneur, explicitly state how an MBA will teach you the required skills of handling competitive threats, allocating resources, and making decisions. Also, explain why now is the energy essay, right time for thesis aids hiv you to do an MBA for further advancement in your career. Most schools (UCLA, kenan Flagler, LBS ) specifically want to know ‘ why MBA now’?

However, even if they don't ask ‘Why MBA’, I would recommend that you should answer this question as this would help demonstrate the clarity of energy essay, your vision. Why Target School? Once you have satisfactorily answered ‘Why MBA?’ and ‘Why MBA now?’ your next step is to aids explain 'why target school'. Discuss how you will use their resources to achieve your goals? Remember, schools always want to compound hear compelling reasons for each candidate’s need for their particular MBA program. (10-15 % of essay) When the School asks 'Why We'? When the aids hiv, schools specifically ask you why you are interested in them (UCLA, Tuck, Columbia, Chicago etc.), you need to essay provide a detailed explanation (depending on the word-limits specified by them) how their specific resources will help you meet your objective.

You may refer to a conversation with a student or a professor which will not only make your essay an interesting and engaging read, but will also validate your genuine enthusiasm for this schools. In short, make a convincing argument of how their offerings (classes, faculty, clubs, alumni, other programs etc.) are closely related to your goals. Go online, visit campus, classes, talk to professors, students, and thesis hiv, alumni, and discuss your experiences of visiting classes, programs, professors, if you can. When the School doesn't ask 'Why We'? Even when the school asks a generic question Why do you need an essay MBA to reach your goals? it is in fact, also asking you Why do you need an MBA from hiv our school? and “How will you use our resources to camden binding of thesis achieve your goals?’ Therefore, it still makes sense to make a brief statement about your interest and aids, need of their specific offerings.

Contribution to the target School: Often a school will ask applicants what they will bring to their MBA program if they are selected as students (Ross, Cornell Fuqua, Kenan Flagler etc.). In this case, you can refer to such possible contributions as participation or leadership in particular club, in classroom discussions or team work. You can also state that your international background would bring global perspective to teams or course work, or your personal characteristics like humor or enthusiasm will facilitate bonding between class mates or team groups. Even if the school doesn’t ask you to discuss your contribution, you can still mention (if space permits) what you will bring to street binding the school and why you are a good match for their program? Summing up, think of answering ‘Goals’ question by making logical connections between your past (past experience), and thesis aids, future (future goals and objectives) present (need of an MBA). School? Explain how your personal and professional experiences have shaped your goals, how an MBA from thesis hiv your target school would help you achieve your goals, and compound, how you will add significant value to the school with your skills and experience. Furthermore, while telling your story, you need to make sure it reveals your personal characteristics e.g. leadership, persistence, intelligence, creativity, diligence, integrity ability to work in teams etc. Lastly, and thesis hiv, most importantly, since schools word their 'Goals' question differently based on what they are looking for in their potential students, you need to compound make sure to structure and thesis aids hiv, modify details of your story as per the essay prompt.

Almost all top business schools require applicants to write a Personal statement or Goals essay in energy crisis essay which they discuss their goals and ambitions as they pertain to the MBA degree, and often to the target school’s particular program. What should I write in a Statement of thesis hiv, Purpose or 'Goals' essay? A statement of purpose or a ‘Goals’ essay requires you to make a logical connection between your past, present, and future. This means you need to tell a story that connects your past ( past work-experience), present (your need of an personal school MBA from your target school to achieve your goals, and your future (goals and objectives). The Schools want to see that you have a clear plan/ vision for aids future and you have the ability to statement for graduate school convince them of the same by thesis aids telling your story that is not only clear and compelling, but also reveals your personal and professional attributes.

Goals essay needs to be approached in different ways as per the specifications of essay prompt and the word limit specified by various schools. However, a typical ‘goals’ essay should have the following structure: Structure of of thesis, a typical Goals Essay: Past: (about 30-35% of essay) Begin your essay with a story/ event/ life experience that reflects passion for aids hiv your chosen field e.g. marketing or finance or any other field.Make sure your opening statement is compelling enough to hook the Ad Com and personal statement for graduate, make them continue reading your essay .There are several ways of making an engaging beginning: a quote, an interesting description, an anecdote, a question, a startling statement, or statistics. Thesis? You may choose any method that works for you to draw the reader into writing essay your story. The following is an example of an engaging beginning that hooks the reader with a real- life example/anecdote: My love and thesis aids hiv, passion for finance dates back the time when I was only application, 13 years old and used to ponder at the stock prices in the newspaper for countless hours. Later, at thesis, 15, and only one week into my first job at a bank, I purchased my first stock. Today, at 25, banking and finance still enthuse me. Every morning, I go to work motivated and for graduate examples, with a smile, enjoying my commute time reading finance books.

After drawing the reader's attention by your story of passion, continue with your story and provide details about how you have pursued your interest/passion and progressed along your career path these 3-4 years (or whatever your work experience is). Thesis Hiv? Be specific in explaining how you have risen in crisis positions/ responsibilities and salary in order to thesis aids hiv illustrate that your abilities are recognized and rewarded by your company. Future: (about 25-30 % of essay) Now explain how your past experience have shaped your future goals and objectives and what are your plans for the future. Be clear and persuasive worksheet, decisive for short term goals (even if you are not 100% sure. Show that you have put some thought into thesis aids hiv it. For example, you should precisely state if you are a career enhancer and your short term goal is to rise to essay the next level in your current company, or if you are career changer and your objective is to thesis hiv learn new skills through MBA so you can change your career path. After you have specified your short term goals, go ahead and discuss your long term goals. It is ok to be more broad and idealistic for albright essay long term goals, but explain steps (A to hiv B to C) to compound make sure there is a logical connection between short term and long term goals. Aids Hiv? For example, you should not say that your long term goal is to be CEO of xyz company if your past experience, current skills set and your short term goals do not at energy essay, all seem to be leading to thesis that direction. Present: (about 25-30 % of essay) After having discussed your future goals, explain how an MBA fits in the puzzle of the grand scheme of research on personality, your career path.

In other words, elaborate why you believe that an MBA is the next logical step in hiv your career path. Be specific when explaining how certain specific skills acquired during MBA will bring you closer to the fulfillment of energy crisis, your goals. For example, if your goal is to be an hiv entrepreneur, explicitly state how an MBA will teach you the required skills of handling competitive threats, allocating resources, and making decisions. Also, explain why now is the right time for persuasive writing worksheet you to do an aids MBA for camden street of thesis further advancement in your career. Thesis Aids? Most schools (UCLA, kenan Flagler, LBS ) specifically want to know ‘ why MBA now’?

However, even if they don't ask ‘Why MBA’, I would recommend that you should answer this question as this would help demonstrate the compound, clarity of your vision. Why Target School? Once you have satisfactorily answered ‘Why MBA?’ and ‘Why MBA now?’ your next step is to explain 'why target school'. Thesis? Discuss how you will use their resources to statement examples achieve your goals? Remember, schools always want to hear compelling reasons for each candidate’s need for their particular MBA program. Thesis Aids? (10-15 % of essay) When the research paper on personality, School asks 'Why We'? When the aids hiv, schools specifically ask you why you are interested in them (UCLA, Tuck, Columbia, Chicago etc.), you need to energy essay provide a detailed explanation (depending on the word-limits specified by them) how their specific resources will help you meet your objective. You may refer to a conversation with a student or a professor which will not only make your essay an interesting and engaging read, but will also validate your genuine enthusiasm for this schools. In short, make a convincing argument of how their offerings (classes, faculty, clubs, alumni, other programs etc.) are closely related to your goals. Go online, visit campus, classes, talk to professors, students, and thesis, alumni, and discuss your experiences of visiting classes, programs, professors, if you can.

When the camden street binding, School doesn't ask 'Why We'? Even when the thesis, school asks a generic question Why do you need an MBA to street binding reach your goals? it is in fact, also asking you Why do you need an MBA from our school? and “How will you use our resources to achieve your goals?’ Therefore, it still makes sense to make a brief statement about your interest and need of their specific offerings. Contribution to the target School: Often a school will ask applicants what they will bring to their MBA program if they are selected as students (Ross, Cornell Fuqua, Kenan Flagler etc.). In this case, you can refer to such possible contributions as participation or leadership in particular club, in classroom discussions or team work. You can also state that your international background would bring global perspective to hiv teams or course work, or your personal characteristics like humor or enthusiasm will facilitate bonding between class mates or team groups.

Even if the school doesn’t ask you to discuss your contribution, you can still mention (if space permits) what you will bring to writing essay the school and why you are a good match for their program?